Selasa, 20 Mei 2008

What is Networking

Computer Networking
A computer network is an interconnected group of computers. Networks may be classified by the network layer at which they operate according to basic reference models considered as standards in the industry, such as the four-layer Internet Protocol Suite model. While the seven-layer Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model is better known in academia, the majority of networks use the Internet Protocol Suite (IP).
Types of Networks

KNOW NETWORKING TIPS HERE



1. By Size
Computer networks may be classified according to the scale: Personal area network (PAN), Local Area Network (LAN), Campus Area Network (CAN), Metropolitan area network (MAN), or Wide area network (WAN).

2. By Topologies
i)Ring topology - A ring topology (more commonly known as a token ring topology) creates a network by arranging 2 or more hosts in a circle. Data is passed between hosts through a 'token.' This token moves rapidly at all times throughout the ring in one direction. If a host desires to send data to another host, it will attach that data as well as a piece of data saying who the message is for to the token as it passes by. The other host will then see that the token has a message for it by scanning for destination MAC addresses that match its own. If the MAC addresses do match, the host will take the data and the message will be delivered. A variation of this topology, the 'star ring' topology, is in common use today.

The ring topology is still regarded as one of the major network topologies of the networking world.

ii)Mesh topology - A mesh topology creates a network by ensuring that every host machine is connected to more than one other host machine on the local area network. This topology's main purpose is for fault tolerance - as opposed to a bus topology, where the entire LAN will go down if one host fails. In a mesh topology, as long as 2 machines with a working connection are still functioning, a LAN will still exist.

The mesh topology is still regarded as one of the major network topologies of the networking world.

iii)Star topology - A star topology creates a network by arranging 2 or more host machines around a central hub. A variation of this topology, the 'star ring' topology, is in common use today.

The star topology is still regarded as one of the major network topologies of the networking world.


iv)Line topology - This rare topology works by connecting every host to the host located to the right of it. Most networking professionals do not even regard this as an actual topology, as it is very expensive (due to its cabling requirements)and due to the fact that it is much more practical to connect the hosts on either end to form a ring topology, which is much cheaper and more efficient.

v)Tree topology - A tree topology, similar to a line topology in that it is extremely rare and is generally not regarded as one of the main network topologies, forms a network by arranging hosts in a hierarchal fashion. A host that is a branch off from the main tree is called a 'leaf.' This topology in this respect becomes very similar to a partial mesh topology - if a 'leaf' fails, its connection is isolated and the rest of the LAN can continue onwards.

vi)Bus topology - A bus topology creates a network by connecting 2 or more hosts to a length of coaxial backbone cabling. In this topology, a terminator must be placed on the end of the backbone coaxial cabling - in Michael Meyer's Network+ textbook, he commonly compares a network to a series of pipes that water travels through. Think of the data as water; in this respect, the terminator must be placed in order to prevent the water from flowing out of the network.

The bus topology is still regarded as one of the major network topologies of the networking world.

vii)Hybrid topology - A hybrid topology, which is what most networks implement today, uses a combination of multiple basic network topologies, usually by functioning as one topology logically while appearing as another physically. The most common hybrid topologies include Star Bus, and Star Ring.

Know Here Networking Tips:
NET WORKING TIPS

Tidak ada komentar:

Poskan Komentar